Neuropharmacological activity of the crude ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum flowering bud

Md. Maimun Hossain, Tutun Das Aka, Mohammad Saydur Rahman, A.H.M. Mazbah Uddin, Naimur Rahman, Md. Mamun Or Rashid

Md. Maimun Hossain
Department of Pharmacy, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Sonapur, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.

Tutun Das Aka
Department of Pharmacy, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Sonapur, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.

Mohammad Saydur Rahman
Department of Pharmacy, Jagannath University, 9-10, Chittaranjan Avenue, Dhaka-1100, Bangladesh.

A.H.M. Mazbah Uddin
Department of Pharmacy, Mawlana Bhasani Science and Technology University, Bangladesh.

Naimur Rahman
Bangladesh National Herbarium, Mirpur-1, Dhaka-1216

Md. Mamun Or Rashid
Department of Pharmacy, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Sonapur, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.. Email: mamun_nstu@yahoo.com
Online First: October 15, 2019 | Cite this Article
Hossain, M., Aka, T., Rahman, M., Uddin, A., Rahman, N., Rashid, M. 2019. Neuropharmacological activity of the crude ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum flowering bud. Discovery Phytomedicine 6(4). DOI:10.15562/phytomedicine.2019.109

Backgroud: Present study was designed to assess the possibility of in-vivo neuropharmacological effects of the ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum flowering buds by using behavioral models of mice.

Methods: Anxiolytic effects of the extract were assessed using open field test (OFT), hole cross test (HCT), elevated plus maze (EPM), and hole board test (HBT) respectively; while antidepressant properties were determined using forced swimming test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST). Finally thiopental sodium (TS)-induced sleeping time test helped us to evaluate the sedative-hypnotic potential of the extract.

Results: In OFT and HCT, the movement of the mice decreased significantly (*p<0.005) for the extract treated groups when compare to control. This decrease indicates the suppression of locomotor activities of mice (from 1st-5th observation periods). Moreover, the increase of the spending time in EPM open arm, and head dipping in HBT endorsed the anxiolytic-like behavior of the extract. In FST and TST, S. aromaticum extract significantly (*p<0.05, **p<0.001) reduced the immobility time of the mice. Approx. 29% and 34% reduction of the immobility time were found in FST for 250 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg b.w. doses respectively, which clearly indicates the presence of the antidepressant compounds in extract. Finally, TS-induced sleeping time test confirmed the potency of the sedative response of the extract (sleeping duration were 45.4±2.6 minutes for control, whereas 87.0±1.79 minutes for 500 mg/kg b.w. extract treated group). The observed neurological response may be due to binding of any phytoconstituent with gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABAA) or benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors.

Conclusion: Our study results suggest that the ethanolic extract of S. aromaticum possess remarkable sedative, antidepressant and anxiolytic activities with a demand of further investigation for the drug development program.


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