ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity and phytochemical profile of Croton menyharthii plant from Tana River County Kenya

Catherine Kaluwa Kaingu

Catherine Kaluwa Kaingu
University of Nairobi. Email: ckaluwa@uonbi.ac.ke
Online First: July 15, 2020 | Cite this Article
Kaingu, C. 2020. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity and phytochemical profile of Croton menyharthii plant from Tana River County Kenya. Discovery Phytomedicine 7(3). DOI:10.15562/phytomedicine.2020.135


Croton menyharthii root bark is used to
manage female reproductive ailments in
Tana River County, Kenya. The plant
treats dysmenorrhea, prevents abortion,
stops post-partum hemorrhage and is also
a contraceptive. Toxicological and
phytochemical profile of the plant is still
unknown. Preliminary phytochemical
screening of Dichloromethane-Methanol
and aqueous Croton menyharthii root bark
extracts was carried out as per method 

used by Kisianan et al., 2019. Acute oral
toxicity study was conducted using female
rats by using OECD 423 guidelines
whereas the sub-acute toxicity study was
carried out using OECD 407 guidelines.
General behavior, adverse effects and
mortality were keenly observed throughout
the experimental period. Food intake,
water intake, body weight, organ weight,
hematological and biochemical parameters
were evaluated. Alkaloids, saponins,
phenols, cardiac glycosides and tannins 

were present in both organic and aqueous
extract. Both extracts had acute oral
toxicity greater than 2000 mg/kg. In the
sub-acute toxicity study, there was a
significant dose-dependent decrease in the
levels of total protein in rats treated with
200 (P<0.006), 400 (P<0.00) and 800
mg/kg (P< 0.00) aqueous extract relative
to the control. None of the extracts caused
a significant effect on haematological
parameters. Long term administration of
Croton menyharthii root bark extract is
associated with significant alterations in
renal physiology. Given the finding, we
recommend the judicious use of the root
bark extracts of Croton menyharthii
particularly when long term use is being
considered.

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