Selenium content, antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-sickling activities of Zanthoxylum gilletii (De Wild) P.G. Waterman (Rutaceae)

Paulin Mutwale Kapepula , Florent Mukeba, Johnny Mukoko Bopopi, Manix Mayangi, Christian Kikweta, Fanfan Kitwa, Jean-Paul Ngbolua, Nadège Ngombe, Pius Mpiana, Théophile Mbemba

Paulin Mutwale Kapepula
University of Kinshasa. Email: garaphmutwal@yahoo.fr

Florent Mukeba
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, National Pedagogic University

Johnny Mukoko Bopopi
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, National Pedagogic University

Manix Mayangi
Centre d’Etudes des Substances Naturelles d’Origine Végétale (CESNOV), Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kinshasa

Christian Kikweta
Centre d’Etudes des Substances Naturelles d’Origine Végétale (CESNOV), Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kinshasa

Fanfan Kitwa
Congolese National Office of Control, Laboratory of mineral analysis, Lubumbashi

Jean-Paul Ngbolua
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Kinshasa

Nadège Ngombe
Centre d’Etudes des Substances Naturelles d’Origine Végétale (CESNOV), Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kinshasa

Pius Mpiana
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Kinshasa

Théophile Mbemba
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Kinshasa
Online First: October 15, 2020 | Cite this Article
Mutwale Kapepula, P., Mukeba, F., Mukoko Bopopi, J., Mayangi, M., Kikweta, C., Kitwa, F., Ngbolua, J., Ngombe, N., Mpiana, P., Mbemba, T. 2020. Selenium content, antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-sickling activities of Zanthoxylum gilletii (De Wild) P.G. Waterman (Rutaceae). Discovery Phytomedicine 7(4). DOI:10.15562/phytomedicine.2020.141

Aim: The aim of this study was to identify bioactive compounds, to determine the mineral content and to evaluate the antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-sickling activities of different parts of Zanthoxylum gilletii.

Methods: Phytochemical composition was evaluated by general tests as well as chromatographic technics (TLC and HPLC), the mineral micronutrient content was quantified by spectroscopy ICP-OES. The antioxidant activities of the infusions extracts from leaves, stem bark and root bark of Z. gilletii were evaluated using ABTS an DPPH assays, the antibacterial activity against four bacteria strains using the micro-dilution method; and the anti-sickling activity was assessed by the Emmel test.

Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols such as anthocyanins and flavonoids (stem bark) while stem and root barks contained tannins. Alkaloids were found in the leaves, saponins in leaves, stem and root barks. Leaves and root bark also contained triterpenoids and steroids, while only stem bark contained quinonic derivatives. For phenolic acids and flavonoids, stem and root barks could contain luteolin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and only stem bark could contain rutin. Mineral analysis revealed the presence of macronutrients and micronutrients including calcium, iron, zinc and selenium. All aqueous extracts displayed high ABTS and DPPH radical-scavenging activities at the concentration range of 1–25 ug/mL. The in vitro Emmel test showed that the aqueous extracts of the different parts had anti-sickling properties at the concentration of 10.42 µg/mL, 20.83 µg/mL, 83.30 µg/mL for the stem bark, the leaves and the root bark respectively. The stem bark was the most active extract. The results of antibacterial activity test indicated that the all extracts exhibited the highest activity against Staphyloccocus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Stem barks showed moderate activity against P. aeruginosa and root barks against S. aureus and Enterococcus spp respectively.

Conclusions: The bioactivities of the different parts could be attributed to alkaloids, phenolic compounds and terpenes. Stem bark showed the best antioxidant, antibacterial and anti sickling activities. Z. gilletii contains the phytochemicals that validate its use in Traditional Medicine for the management of sickle cell disease.


Bongo GN, Inkoto C, Masengo C, Tshiama C, Lengbiye E, Djolu R. and Kapepula M. et al. Antisickling, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Afromomum alboviolaceum (Ridley) K. Schum, Annona senegalensis Pers. and Mondia whitei (Hook. f.) Skeels. Am J. Lab. Med. 2017; 2: 52-59.

Muthu C, Ayyanar M, Raja N, and Ignacimuthu S. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India. J. Ethnobio. Ethnomed. 2006; 2: 43. doi: 10.1186/1746-4269-2-43.

Iserin P. Encyclopédie des plantes médicinales. Identification-Préparation-pharmacologie. Etudiants et professionnels paramédicaux. 2001 ; 4eme Edition, pp. 426.

Mpiana PT, Kimbadi BL, Ombeni AM, Ngbolua KN, Tshibangu DST, Tshilanda DD et al. In vitro inhibitory effects and anti-sickle erythrocytes haemolysis of Dicliptera colorata C.B. Clarke, Euphorbia hirta L. and Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Open Journal of Blood Diseases. 2013; 3:43-48.

Ngbolua KN, Mpiana PT, Mwanza BF, Tshibangu DST, Tshilanda DD, Masengo AC et al. Antisickling and antibacterial activities of Garcinia punctata Oliv. (Clusiaceae) and Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd (Lamiaceae) from Democratic Republic of the Congo. J of Advancement in Medical and Life Sciences. 2016, V4I1. DOI: 10.15297/JALS.V4I1.01

Latham P, ku Mbuta AK. Useful plants of Bas-Congo Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. 2nd ed. Canterbury: Mystole Publications. 2006. 1- 276 p.

Bibi Sadeer N, Llorent-Martínez EJ, Bene K, Fawzi Mahomoodally M, Mollica A, Ibrahime Sinan K, et al. Chemical profiling, antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory and molecular modelling studies on the leaves and stem bark extracts of three African medicinal plants. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2019; 174: 19–33.

Sinan KI, Zengin G, Bene K, Mahomoodally MF. Chemistry and pharmacology of three antiplasmodial traditional medicinal plants from tropical Africa – A review. South African J Bot. 2019; 126: 265–76. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2019.04.024

Bruneton J. Pharmacognosie, Phytochimie et Plantes médicinales. Edition Technique et Documentation-Lavoisier. Paris. 1999; 3e édition, 421- 499.

Wagner H, Bauer R, Melchart D, Xioa PG. and Staudinger A. Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Herbal Medicinal: Thin-Layer High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Chinese Drugs. Vol. 3, Springer International Publishing, Berlin. 2013.

Kapepula PM, Ngombe KN, Tshisekedi TP., Tsumbu C, Franck T, Mouithys-Mickalad A, Frédérich M, et al. Comparison of Metabolic Profiles and Bioactivities of the Leaves of Three Edible Congolese Hibiscus Species. Natural Product Research. 2017; 31, 2885-2892.

AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). Official Methods of Analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA. 2019; 18th edition.

Okusa PN, Penge O, Devleeschouwer M, Duez P. Direct and indirect antimicrobial effects and antioxidant activity of Cordia gilletii De Wild (Boraginaceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 2007; 112(3): 476–481.

Mpiana PT, Mudogo V, Nyamangombe L, Kakule MK, Ngbolua KN, Atibu EK, et al. Antisickling Activity and Photodegradation Effect of Anthocyanins Extracts from Alchornea cordifolia (SCHUMACH & Thonn.) and Crotalaria retusa L. Ann. Afr. Med. 2009; 2(4): 240-245.

Adesina SK. The Nigerian Zanthoxylum: chemical and biological values. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2005; 2(3).

Alexou M, Peuke AD. Roles and Functions of Plants Mineral Nutrients. In: Plant Mineral Nutrients. 2013. p. 195–207.

Miguel de la Guardia M, Garrigues S. Handbook of mineral elements in food. Handbook of Mineral Elements in Food. 2015. 1–766 p.

Cockell KA. Mineral Nutrients. In: Schwab M. (eds) Encyclopedia of Cancer. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2011. p. 2318-2322.

Delesderrier E, Cople-Rodrigues CS, Omena J, Fleury MK, Brito FB, Bacelo AC, et al. Selenium status and hemolysis in sickle cell disease patients. Nutrients. 2019;11(9):1–11.

Smith OS, Ajose OA, Adegoke SA, Adegoke OA, Adedeji TA, Oderinu KA. Plasma level of antioxidants is related to frequency of vaso-occlusive crises in children with sickle cell anaemia in steady state in Nigeria. Pediatr Hematol Oncol J [Internet]. 2019;4(1):17–22.

Sobota A, Sabharwal V, Fonebi G, Steinberg M. How we prevent and manage infection in sickle cell disease. Br J Haematol. 2015; 170 (6):757–767.

Ochocinski D, Dalal M, Black LV, Carr S, Lew J, Sullivan K, et al. Life-Threatening Infectious Complications in Sickle Cell Disease: A Concise Narrative Review. Front Pediatr. 2020; 8(February).

Mpiana PT, Ngbolua KN, Mudogo V, Tshibangu DST, Atibu EK, Tshilanda DD et al. Antisickle erythrocytes haemolysis properties and inhibitory effect of anthocyanins extracts of Trema orientalis (Ulmaceae) on the aggregation of human deoxyhemoglobin S in vitro. Journal of Med Sciences. 2011; 11(3): 129-137.

Tshilanda DD, Onyamboko DNV, Babady PB, Ngbolua KN, Tshibangu DST, Dibwe EF et al. Anti-sickling Activity of Ursolic Acid Isolated from the Leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae). Nat. Prod. Bioprospect. 2015; 5: 215-221.

Tshilanda DD, Onyamboko DVN, Babady PB, Mutwale PK, Tsalu PV, Tshibangu DST et al. Chemical fingerprint and anti-sickling activity of Rosmarinic acid and Methanolic extracts from three Species of Ocimum from DR Congo. J of Biosciences and Medicines. 2016; 4:59-68.

No Supplementary Material available for this article.
Article Views      : 0
PDF Downloads : 0