Background: The emergence of microorganismsâ€™ new resistance mechanism, the emerging and re-emerging of new infectious disease and side effects of antimicrobials threatening our ability to treat infectious diseases. Therefore, researches for the innovation of new drugs are needed through identification of the best candidate like plants which are used in traditional medicine. In Ethiopia, women dye their palms and nails by a root paste of the study plant (Impatiens tinctoria A. Rich) as a beauty treatment, to toughen the skin and to control fungal infections.
Objectives: To investigate the antifungal activities, phytochemical screening and Thin Layer Chromatography profiling of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate root extracts of Impatiens tinctoria A. Rich.
Methods: The roots of Impatiens tinctoria A. Rich were collected from Gurage Zone around Butajira town and processed and extracted using solvents of ethyl acetate, ethanol and water. Agar well diffusion and agar dilution methods were used for screening the antifungal activity of the extracts and for determination of minimal inhibitory concentration, respectively. The minimum fungicidal concentration of the extracts was determined and the plant extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening.
Result: From the tested fungi T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes were more susceptible. The study screened the presence of at least 7 phytochemicals (alkaloids, flavonoids, anthraquinens, terpenoids, glycosides, quinones and saponins) and 6 compounds in the roots of the study plant. Ethyl acetate extract was more potent and broader spectrum of antifungal activities than ethanol and aqueous extracts.
Conclusion: The roots of the study plant showed notable antifungal potency. However, further research should be undertaken to elucidate the involved phytochemicals and compounds present in the extracts and mechanism of action which clear out the road for developing new antifungal drugs.