Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Exploring the role of phytochemicals as biopharmaceuticals targeting Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) virus: an Overview


ALI (Acute lung injury) and its more fatal form ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) together represent a broad spectrum of lung diseases, which are characterized by the abrupt onset of pulmonary inflammation with fluid filled alveoli resulting in hypoxia. With the advancement of several diagnostic tools, especially discovery of multiplex RT-PCR, increased the chance to investigate the involvement of different respiratory viruses in causing ARDS. There are several different viruses responsible for ARDS and among them few are capable of causing pandemic. Influenza viruses such as H5N1 and H1N1 causing pandemic in 2009. Also among different corona viruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and most recently a novel betacoronavirus strain, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been identified. Till date, the therapy against virus induced ARDS has not been optimized. Naturally existing phytochemicals and plant biotechnology could offer prospective solutions for the treatment against virus induced ARDS by developing inhibitors, low-cost vaccines and antibodies, which could not only be useful for treatment but could also be used for diagnosis. In this present COVID-19 pandemic, use of plant based therapeutic approach has already been adopted by several pharma companies to treat ARDS and there are several molecules currently under clinical trials with encouraging results. This review provides detailed outlook on ARDS pandemic causing viruses, pathophysiology of viruses and role of phytochemicals and plantibodies as anti-viral agent. Further, it summarizes list of phytochemicals and their mode of action in these pathogenic viruses.


  1. References:
  2. Ferguson ND, Davis AM, Slutsky AS, Stewart TE. Development of a clinical definition for acute respiratory distress syndrome using the Delphi technique. Journal of critical care. 2005; 20(2): 147-54.
  3. Fanelli V, Vlachou A, Ghannadian S, Simonetti U, Slutsky AS, Zhang H. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: new definition, current and future therapeutic options. Journal of thoracic disease. 2013; 5(3): 326-34.
  4. Piantadosi CA, Schwartz DA. The acute respiratory distress syndrome. Annals of internal medicine. 2004; 141(6): 460-70.
  5. Jennings LC, Anderson TP, Beynon KA, Chua A, Laing RT, Werno AM, et al. Incidence and characteristics of viral community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Thorax. 2008; 63(1): 42-8.
  6. Luyt CE, Combes A, Nieszkowska A, Trouillet JL, Chastre J. Viral infections in the ICU. Current opinion in critical care. 2008; 14(5): 605-8.
  7. Papazian L, Doddoli C, Chetaille B, Gernez Y, Thirion X, Roch A, et al. A contributive result of open-lung biopsy improves survival in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. Critical care medicine. 2007; 35(3): 755-62.
  8. Moine P, Vercken JB, Chevret S, Chastang C, Gajdos P. Severe community-acquired pneumonia. Etiology, epidemiology, and prognosis factors. French Study Group for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in the Intensive Care Unit. Chest. 1994; 105(5): 1487-95.
  9. Arabi YM, Fowler R, Hayden FG. Critical care management of adults with community-acquired severe respiratory viral infection. Intensive care medicine. 2020; 46(2): 315-28.
  10. Kumar A, Zarychanski R, Pinto R, Cook DJ, Marshall J, Lacroix J, et al. Critically ill patients with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection in Canada. Jama. 2009; 302(17): 1872-9.
  11. Jester B, Uyeki TM, Jernigan DB, Tumpey TM. Historical and clinical aspects of the 1918 H1N1 pandemic in the United States. Virology. 2019; 527: 32-7.
  12. Chan-Yeung M, Xu RH. SARS: epidemiology. Respirology. 2003; 8 Suppl: S9-14.
  13. Channappanavar R, Perlman S. Pathogenic human coronavirus infections: causes and consequences of cytokine storm and immunopathology. Seminars in immunopathology. 2017; 39(5): 529-39.
  14. Beloncle FM, Pavlovsky B, Desprez C, Fage N, Olivier PY, Asfar P, et al. Recruitability and effect of PEEP in SARS-Cov-2-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. Annals of intensive care. 2020; 10(1): 55.
  15. Andersen KG, Rambaut A, Lipkin WI, Holmes EC, Garry RF. The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nature medicine. 2020; 26(4): 450-2.
  16. Prompetchara E, Ketloy C, Palaga T. Immune responses in COVID-19 and potential vaccines: Lessons learned from SARS and MERS epidemic. Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology. 2020; 38(1): 1-9.
  17. Yusibov V, Kushnir N, Streatfield SJ. Advances and challenges in the development and production of effective plant-based influenza vaccines. Expert review of vaccines. 2015; 14(4): 519-35.
  18. Takeyama N, Kiyono H, Yuki Y. Plant-based vaccines for animals and humans: recent advances in technology and clinical trials. Therapeutic advances in vaccines. 2015; 3(5-6): 139-54.
  19. Rosales-Mendoza S, Marquez-Escobar VA, Gonzalez-Ortega O, Nieto-Gomez R, Arevalo-Villalobos JI. What Does Plant-Based Vaccine Technology Offer to the Fight against COVID-19? Vaccines. 2020; 8(2).
  20. Rybicki EP. Plant-based vaccines against viruses. Virology journal. 2014; 11: 205.
  21. Lin LT, Hsu WC, Lin CC. Antiviral natural products and herbal medicines. Journal of traditional and complementary medicine. 2014; 4(1): 24-35.
  22. Oguntibeju OO. Medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activities from selected countries and regions of Africa. Journal of inflammation research. 2018; 11: 307-17.
  23. Torres A, Serra-Batlles J, Ferrer A, Jimenez P, Celis R, Cobo E, et al. Severe community-acquired pneumonia. Epidemiology and prognostic factors. The American review of respiratory disease. 1991; 144(2): 312-8.
  24. Choi SH, Hong SB, Ko GB, Lee Y, Park HJ, Park SY, et al. Viral infection in patients with severe pneumonia requiring intensive care unit admission. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2012; 186(4): 325-32.
  25. Nguyen C, Kaku S, Tutera D, Kuschner WG, Barr J. Viral Respiratory Infections of Adults in the Intensive Care Unit. Journal of intensive care medicine. 2016; 31(7): 427-41.
  26. de Roux A, Marcos MA, Garcia E, Mensa J, Ewig S, Lode H, et al. Viral community-acquired pneumonia in nonimmunocompromised adults. Chest. 2004; 125(4): 1343-51.
  27. Luyt CE, Combes A, Trouillet JL, Nieszkowska A, Chastre J. Virus-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome: epidemiology, management and outcome. Presse medicale. 2011; 40(12 Pt 2): e561-8.
  28. Diaz A, Barria P, Niederman M, Restrepo MI, Dreyse J, Fuentes G, et al. Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized patients in chile: the increasing prevalence of respiratory viruses among classic pathogens. Chest. 2007; 131(3): 779-87.
  29. Kalil AC, Thomas PG. Influenza virus-related critical illness: pathophysiology and epidemiology. Critical care. 2019; 23(1): 258.
  30. Jacobs SE, Lamson DM, St George K, Walsh TJ. Human rhinoviruses. Clinical microbiology reviews. 2013; 26(1): 135-62.
  31. Arbeitskreis Blut U. Influenza Virus. Transfusion medicine and hemotherapy : offizielles Organ der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Transfusionsmedizin und Immunhamatologie. 2009; 36(1): 32-9.
  32. Cui J, Li F, Shi ZL. Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. Nature reviews Microbiology. 2019; 17(3): 181-92.
  33. Peiris JS, Yuen KY, Osterhaus AD, Stohr K. The severe acute respiratory syndrome. The New England journal of medicine. 2003; 349(25): 2431-41.
  34. Zhong NS, Zheng BJ, Li YM, Poon, Xie ZH, Chan KH, et al. Epidemiology and cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Guangdong, People's Republic of China, in February, 2003. Lancet. 2003; 362(9393): 1353-8.
  35. Peiris JS, Chu CM, Cheng VC, Chan KS, Hung IF, Poon LL, et al. Clinical progression and viral load in a community outbreak of coronavirus-associated SARS pneumonia: a prospective study. Lancet. 2003; 361(9371): 1767-72.
  36. Lee N, Hui D, Wu A, Chan P, Cameron P, Joynt GM, et al. A major outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong. The New England journal of medicine. 2003; 348(20): 1986-94.
  37. Wong KT, Antonio GE, Hui DS, Lee N, Yuen EH, Wu A, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome: radiographic appearances and pattern of progression in 138 patients. Radiology. 2003; 228(2): 401-6.
  38. Booth CM, Matukas LM, Tomlinson GA, Rachlis AR, Rose DB, Dwosh HA, et al. Clinical features and short-term outcomes of 144 patients with SARS in the greater Toronto area. Jama. 2003; 289(21): 2801-9.
  39. Beigel JH, Farrar J, Han AM, Hayden FG, Hyer R, de Jong MD, et al. Avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans. The New England journal of medicine. 2005; 353(13): 1374-85.
  40. Writing Committee of the Second World Health Organization Consultation on Clinical Aspects of Human Infection with Avian Influenza AV, Abdel-Ghafar AN, Chotpitayasunondh T, Gao Z, Hayden FG, Nguyen DH, et al. Update on avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in humans. The New England journal of medicine. 2008; 358(3): 261-73.
  41. Writing Committee of the WHOCoCAoPI, Bautista E, Chotpitayasunondh T, Gao Z, Harper SA, Shaw M, et al. Clinical aspects of pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. The New England journal of medicine. 2010; 362(18): 1708-19.
  42. Investigators AI, Webb SA, Pettila V, Seppelt I, Bellomo R, Bailey M, et al. Critical care services and 2009 H1N1 influenza in Australia and New Zealand. The New England journal of medicine. 2009; 361(20): 1925-34.
  43. Tabarsi P, Moradi A, Marjani M, Baghaei P, Hashemian SM, Nadji SA, et al. Factors associated with death or intensive care unit admission due to pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection. Annals of thoracic medicine. 2011; 6(2): 91-5.
  44. World Health Organization:Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  45. Disease Outbreak News: Update. https://wwwwhoint/csr/don/08-april-2020-mers-saudi-arabia/en/. 29.02.2020.
  46. Gonzalez JM, Gomez-Puertas P, Cavanagh D, Gorbalenya AE, Enjuanes L. A comparative sequence analysis to revise the current taxonomy of the family Coronaviridae. Archives of virology. 2003; 148(11): 2207-35.
  47. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020; 395(10223): 497-506.
  48. Rosales-Mendoza S. Will plant-made biopharmaceuticals play a role in the fight against COVID-19? Expert opinion on biological therapy. 2020; 20(6): 545-8.
  49. Novel Swine-Origin Influenza AVIT, Dawood FS, Jain S, Finelli L, Shaw MW, Lindstrom S, et al. Emergence of a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans. The New England journal of medicine. 2009; 360(25): 2605-15.
  50. Launes C, Garcia-Garcia JJ, Jordan I, Selva L, Rello J, Munoz-Almagro C. Viral load at diagnosis and influenza A H1N1 (2009) disease severity in children. Influenza and other respiratory viruses. 2012; 6(6): e89-92.
  51. Travanty E, Zhou B, Zhang H, Di YP, Alcorn JF, Wentworth DE, et al. Differential Susceptibilities of Human Lung Primary Cells to H1N1 Influenza Viruses. Journal of virology. 2015; 89(23): 11935-44.
  52. Shieh WJ, Blau DM, Denison AM, Deleon-Carnes M, Adem P, Bhatnagar J, et al. 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1): pathology and pathogenesis of 100 fatal cases in the United States. The American journal of pathology. 2010; 177(1): 166-75.
  53. Cardani A, Boulton A, Kim TS, Braciale TJ. Alveolar Macrophages Prevent Lethal Influenza Pneumonia By Inhibiting Infection Of Type-1 Alveolar Epithelial Cells. PLoS pathogens. 2017; 13(1): e1006140.
  54. Teijaro JR, Walsh KB, Cahalan S, Fremgen DM, Roberts E, Scott F, et al. Endothelial cells are central orchestrators of cytokine amplification during influenza virus infection. Cell. 2011; 146(6): 980-91.
  55. Guo XJ, Thomas PG. New fronts emerge in the influenza cytokine storm. Seminars in immunopathology. 2017; 39(5): 541-50.
  56. Narasaraju T, Yang E, Samy RP, Ng HH, Poh WP, Liew AA, et al. Excessive neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps contribute to acute lung injury of influenza pneumonitis. The American journal of pathology. 2011; 179(1): 199-210.
  57. Zhu L, Liu L, Zhang Y, Pu L, Liu J, Li X, et al. High Level of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Correlates With Poor Prognosis of Severe Influenza A Infection. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2018; 217(3): 428-37.
  58. Medzhitov R. Recognition of microorganisms and activation of the immune response. Nature. 2007; 449(7164): 819-26.
  59. Barton GM. A calculated response: control of inflammation by the innate immune system. The Journal of clinical investigation. 2008; 118(2): 413-20.
  60. Wurfel MM. Genetic insights into sepsis: what have we learned and how will it help? Current pharmaceutical design. 2008; 14(19): 1900-11.
  61. Tisoncik JR, Korth MJ, Simmons CP, Farrar J, Martin TR, Katze MG. Into the eye of the cytokine storm. Microbiology and molecular biology reviews : MMBR. 2012; 76(1): 16-32.
  62. Jin S, Li Y, Pan R, Zou X. Characterizing and controlling the inflammatory network during influenza A virus infection. Scientific reports. 2014; 4: 3799.
  63. Muramoto Y, Shoemaker JE, Le MQ, Itoh Y, Tamura D, Sakai-Tagawa Y, et al. Disease severity is associated with differential gene expression at the early and late phases of infection in nonhuman primates infected with different H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Journal of virology. 2014; 88(16): 8981-97.
  64. Cilloniz C, Pantin-Jackwood MJ, Ni C, Goodman AG, Peng X, Proll SC, et al. Lethal dissemination of H5N1 influenza virus is associated with dysregulation of inflammation and lipoxin signaling in a mouse model of infection. Journal of virology. 2010; 84(15): 7613-24.
  65. Peiris JS, Cheung CY, Leung CY, Nicholls JM. Innate immune responses to influenza A H5N1: friend or foe? Trends in immunology. 2009; 30(12): 574-84.
  66. La Gruta NL, Kedzierska K, Stambas J, Doherty PC. A question of self-preservation: immunopathology in influenza virus infection. Immunology and cell biology. 2007; 85(2): 85-92.
  67. de Jong MD, Simmons CP, Thanh TT, Hien VM, Smith GJ, Chau TN, et al. Fatal outcome of human influenza A (H5N1) is associated with high viral load and hypercytokinemia. Nature medicine. 2006; 12(10): 1203-7.
  68. Ramana CV, Cheng GS, Kumar A, Kwon HJ, Enelow RI. Role of alveolar epithelial early growth response-1 (Egr-1) in CD8+ T cell-mediated lung injury. Molecular immunology. 2009; 47(2-3): 623-31.
  69. Bermejo-Martin JF, Ortiz de Lejarazu R, Pumarola T, Rello J, Almansa R, Ramirez P, et al. Th1 and Th17 hypercytokinemia as early host response signature in severe pandemic influenza. Critical care. 2009; 13(6): R201.
  70. Nicholls JM, Poon LL, Lee KC, Ng WF, Lai ST, Leung CY, et al. Lung pathology of fatal severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lancet. 2003; 361(9371): 1773-8.
  71. Tse GM, To KF, Chan PK, Lo AW, Ng KC, Wu A, et al. Pulmonary pathological features in coronavirus associated severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Journal of clinical pathology. 2004; 57(3): 260-5.
  72. van den Brand JM, Smits SL, Haagmans BL. Pathogenesis of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The Journal of pathology. 2015; 235(2): 175-84.
  73. Zhang Y, Gao Y, Qiao L, Wang W, Chen D. Inflammatory Response Cells During Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Annals of internal medicine. 2020.
  74. Zhang Y, Li J, Zhan Y, Wu L, Yu X, Zhang W, et al. Analysis of serum cytokines in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Infection and immunity. 2004; 72(8): 4410-5.
  75. Zhou J, Chu H, Li C, Wong BH, Cheng ZS, Poon VK, et al. Active replication of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and aberrant induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human macrophages: implications for pathogenesis. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2014; 209(9): 1331-42.
  76. Jiang Y, Xu J, Zhou C, Wu Z, Zhong S, Liu J, et al. Characterization of cytokine/chemokine profiles of severe acute respiratory syndrome. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2005; 171(8): 850-7.
  77. Tay MZ, Poh CM, Renia L, MacAry PA, Ng LFP. The trinity of COVID-19: immunity, inflammation and intervention. Nature reviews Immunology. 2020; 20(6): 363-74.
  78. Wang CH, Liu CY, Wan YL, Chou CL, Huang KH, Lin HC, et al. Persistence of lung inflammation and lung cytokines with high-resolution CT abnormalities during recovery from SARS. Respiratory research. 2005; 6: 42.
  79. Min CK, Cheon S, Ha NY, Sohn KM, Kim Y, Aigerim A, et al. Comparative and kinetic analysis of viral shedding and immunological responses in MERS patients representing a broad spectrum of disease severity. Scientific reports. 2016; 6: 25359.
  80. Wang Y, Tong J, Qin Y, Xie T, Li J, Li J, et al. Characterization of an asymptomatic cohort of SARS-COV-2 infected individuals outside of Wuhan, China. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2020.
  81. Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, et al. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. The New England journal of medicine. 2020; 382(18): 1708-20.
  82. Delgado-Roche L, Mesta F. Oxidative Stress as Key Player in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) Infection. Archives of medical research. 2020.
  83. Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, Zhang J, Huang L, Zhang C, et al. Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Lancet Respiratory medicine. 2020; 8(4): 420-2.
  84. Payne DC, Iblan I, Alqasrawi S, Al Nsour M, Rha B, Tohme RA, et al. Stillbirth during infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2014; 209(12): 1870-2.
  85. Nan J, Jin YB, Myo Y, Zhang G. Hypoxia in acute cardiac injury of coronavirus disease 2019: lesson learned from pathological studies. Journal of geriatric cardiology : JGC. 2020; 17(4): 221-3.
  86. Gu J, Gong E, Zhang B, Zheng J, Gao Z, Zhong Y, et al. Multiple organ infection and the pathogenesis of SARS. The Journal of experimental medicine. 2005; 202(3): 415-24.
  87. Zhao G, Jiang Y, Qiu H, Gao T, Zeng Y, Guo Y, et al. Multi-Organ Damage in Human Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Transgenic Mice Infected with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus. PloS one. 2015; 10(12): e0145561.
  88. Ruan Q, Yang K, Wang W, Jiang L, Song J. Correction to: Clinical predictors of mortality due to COVID-19 based on an analysis of data of 150 patients from Wuhan, China. Intensive care medicine. 2020; 46(6): 1294-7.
  89. Hite RD, Morris PE. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: pharmacological treatment options in development. Drugs. 2001; 61(7): 897-907.
  90. Cepkova M, Matthay MA. Pharmacotherapy of acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Journal of intensive care medicine. 2006; 21(3): 119-43.
  91. Patel VJ, Biswas Roy S, Mehta HJ, Joo M, Sadikot RT. Alternative and Natural Therapies for Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. BioMed research international. 2018; 2018: 2476824.
  92. Jassim SA, Naji MA. Novel antiviral agents: a medicinal plant perspective. Journal of applied microbiology. 2003; 95(3): 412-27.
  93. Vijayan P, Raghu C, Ashok G, Dhanaraj SA, Suresh B. Antiviral activity of medicinal plants of Nilgiris. The Indian journal of medical research. 2004; 120(1): 24-9.
  94. Prakash P, Gupta N. Therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with a note on eugenol and its pharmacological actions: a short review. Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology. 2005; 49(2): 125-31.
  95. Stoger E, Sack M, Fischer R, Christou P. Plantibodies: applications, advantages and bottlenecks. Current opinion in biotechnology. 2002; 13(2): 161-6.
  96. Salazar-Gonzalez JA, Banuelos-Hernandez B, Rosales-Mendoza S. Current status of viral expression systems in plants and perspectives for oral vaccines development. Plant molecular biology. 2015; 87(3): 203-17.
  97. Fiore C, Eisenhut M, Krausse R, Ragazzi E, Pellati D, Armanini D, et al. Antiviral effects of Glycyrrhiza species. Phytotherapy research : PTR. 2008; 22(2): 141-8.
  98. Lau KM, Lee KM, Koon CM, Cheung CS, Lau CP, Ho HM, et al. Immunomodulatory and anti-SARS activities of Houttuynia cordata. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2008; 118(1): 79-85.
  99. Yang QY, Tian XY, Fang WS. Bioactive coumarins from Boenninghausenia sessilicarpa. Journal of Asian natural products research. 2007; 9(1): 59-65.
  100. Keyaerts E, Vijgen L, Pannecouque C, Van Damme E, Peumans W, Egberink H, et al. Plant lectins are potent inhibitors of coronaviruses by interfering with two targets in the viral replication cycle. Antiviral research. 2007; 75(3): 179-87.
  101. Yi L, Li Z, Yuan K, Qu X, Chen J, Wang G, et al. Small molecules blocking the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus into host cells. Journal of virology. 2004; 78(20): 11334-9.
  102. Chen CJ, Michaelis M, Hsu HK, Tsai CC, Yang KD, Wu YC, et al. Toona sinensis Roem tender leaf extract inhibits SARS coronavirus replication. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2008; 120(1): 108-11.
  103. Loizzo MR, Saab AM, Tundis R, Statti GA, Menichini F, Lampronti I, et al. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antiviral activities of the essential oils of seven Lebanon species. Chemistry & biodiversity. 2008; 5(3): 461-70.
  104. Wen CC, Shyur LF, Jan JT, Liang PH, Kuo CJ, Arulselvan P, et al. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication. Journal of traditional and complementary medicine. 2011; 1(1): 41-50.
  105. Zhuang M, Jiang H, Suzuki Y, Li X, Xiao P, Tanaka T, et al. Procyanidins and butanol extract of Cinnamomi Cortex inhibit SARS-CoV infection. Antiviral research. 2009; 82(1): 73-81.
  106. Ho TY, Wu SL, Chen JC, Li CC, Hsiang CY. Emodin blocks the SARS coronavirus spike protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 interaction. Antiviral research. 2007; 74(2): 92-101.
  107. Lin CW, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH, Lai CC, Wan L, Ho TY, et al. Anti-SARS coronavirus 3C-like protease effects of Isatis indigotica root and plant-derived phenolic compounds. Antiviral research. 2005; 68(1): 36-42.
  108. Luo W, Su X, Gong S, Qin Y, Liu W, Li J, et al. Anti-SARS coronavirus 3C-like protease effects of Rheum palmatum L. extracts. Bioscience trends. 2009; 3(4): 124-6.
  109. Park JY, Kim JH, Kim YM, Jeong HJ, Kim DW, Park KH, et al. Tanshinones as selective and slow-binding inhibitors for SARS-CoV cysteine proteases. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry. 2012; 20(19): 5928-35.
  110. Ryu YB, Jeong HJ, Kim JH, Kim YM, Park JY, Kim D, et al. Biflavonoids from Torreya nucifera displaying SARS-CoV 3CL(pro) inhibition. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry. 2010; 18(22): 7940-7.
  111. Kim DW, Seo KH, Curtis-Long MJ, Oh KY, Oh JW, Cho JK, et al. Phenolic phytochemical displaying SARS-CoV papain-like protease inhibition from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia. Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry. 2014; 29(1): 59-63.
  112. Cho JK, Curtis-Long MJ, Lee KH, Kim DW, Ryu HW, Yuk HJ, et al. Geranylated flavonoids displaying SARS-CoV papain-like protease inhibition from the fruits of Paulownia tomentosa. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry. 2013; 21(11): 3051-7.
  113. Park JY, Yuk HJ, Ryu HW, Lim SH, Kim KS, Park KH, et al. Evaluation of polyphenols from Broussonetia papyrifera as coronavirus protease inhibitors. Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry. 2017; 32(1): 504-15.
  114. Zakay-Rones Z, Thom E, Wollan T, Wadstein J. Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. The Journal of international medical research. 2004; 32(2): 132-40.
  115. R.R. Hafidh ASA, F. Jahanshiri, F. Abas, F. Abu Bakar , Z. Sekawi. Asia is the Mine of Natural Antiviral Products for Public Health. The Open Complementary Medicine Journal. 2009; 1: 58-68.
  116. Rajbhandari M, Mentel R, Jha PK, Chaudhary RP, Bhattarai S, Gewali MB, et al. Antiviral activity of some plants used in Nepalese traditional medicine. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 2009; 6(4): 517-22.
  117. Rajbhandari M, Wegner U, Julich M, Schopke T, Mentel R. Screening of Nepalese medicinal plants for antiviral activity. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2001; 74(3): 251-5.
  118. Liu AL, Shu SH, Qin HL, Lee SM, Wang YT, Du GH. In vitro anti-influenza viral activities of constituents from Caesalpinia sappan. Planta medica. 2009; 75(4): 337-9.
  119. Wang YZ, Cui XL, Gao YJ, Guo SS, Wang XK, Huang Y, et al. [Antivirus effects of extract from gardenia]. Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica. 2006; 31(14): 1176-8.
  120. Vidal A, Fallarero A, Pena BR, Medina ME, Gra B, Rivera F, et al. Studies on the toxicity of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) whole fruit extracts. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2003; 89(2-3): 295-300.
  121. Liu N, Hu XL, Meng YR, Zhu YT, Huang BS, Lin PZ. [Effect of anti-influenza virus H3N2 of Hypericum japonicum in vivo]. Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials. 2008; 31(7): 1022-4.
  122. Sawamura R, Sun Y, Yasukawa K, Shimizu T, Watanabe W, Kurokawa M. Antiviral activities of diarylheptanoids against influenza virus in vitro. Journal of natural medicines. 2010; 64(1): 117-20.
  123. Chen JX, Xue HJ, Ye WC, Fang BH, Liu YH, Yuan SH, et al. Activity of andrographolide and its derivatives against influenza virus in vivo and in vitro. Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin. 2009; 32(8): 1385-91.
  124. Mantani N, Imanishi N, Kawamata H, Terasawa K, Ochiai H. Inhibitory effect of (+)-catechin on the growth of influenza A/PR/8 virus in MDCK cells. Planta medica. 2001; 67(3): 240-3.
  125. Ooi LS, Sun SS, Ooi VE. Purification and characterization of a new antiviral protein from the leaves of Pandanus amaryllifolius (Pandanaceae). The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology. 2004; 36(8): 1440-6.
  126. K DBPaM. Anti Viral Medicinal Plants – An Ethnobotanical Approach. Journal of Phytology 2009; 1(6): 417-21.
  127. Li Y, Ooi LS, Wang H, But PP, Ooi VE. Antiviral activities of medicinal herbs traditionally used in southern mainland China. Phytotherapy research : PTR. 2004; 18(9): 718-22.
  128. Ho WS, Xue JY, Sun SS, Ooi VE, Li YL. Antiviral activity of daphnoretin isolated from Wikstroemia indica. Phytotherapy research : PTR. 2010; 24(5): 657-61.
  129. Ietidal El Tahir Mohamed EBESEN, Abdelrahman MEN. The antibacterial, antiviral activities andphytochemical screening of some Sudanesemedicinal plants EurAsian Journal of BiosciencesEurAsia J BioSci 2010; 4: 816.
  130. Vijayan P, Raghu C, Ashok G, Dhanaraj SA, Suresh B. Antiviral activity of medicinal plants of Nilgiris. The Indian journal of medical research. 2004; 120(1): 24-9.
  131. Prakash P, Gupta N. Therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with a note on eugenol and its pharmacological actions: a short review. Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology. 2005; 49(2): 125-31.
  132. He J, Qi WB, Wang L, Tian J, Jiao PR, Liu GQ, et al. Amaryllidaceae alkaloids inhibit nuclear-to-cytoplasmic export of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1. Influenza and other respiratory viruses. 2013; 7(6): 922-31.
  133. Shen L, Niu J, Wang C, Huang B, Wang W, Zhu N, et al. High-Throughput Screening and Identification of Potent Broad-Spectrum Inhibitors of Coronaviruses. Journal of virology. 2019; 93(12).14
  134. Ooi LS, Ho WS, Ngai KL, Tian L, Chan PK, Sun SS, et al. Narcissus tazetta lectin shows strong inhibitory effects against respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A (H1N1, H3N2, H5N1) and B viruses. Journal of biosciences. 2010; 35(1): 95-103.
  135. Derksen A, Hensel A, Hafezi W, Herrmann F, Schmidt TJ, Ehrhardt C, et al. 3-O-galloylated procyanidins from Rumex acetosa L. inhibit the attachment of influenza A virus. PloS one. 2014; 9(10): e110089.
  136. Dai JP, Wang QW, Su Y, Gu LM, Zhao Y, Chen XX, et al. Emodin Inhibition of Influenza A Virus Replication and Influenza Viral Pneumonia via the Nrf2, TLR4, p38/JNK and NF-kappaB Pathways. Molecules. 2017; 22(10).14
  137. Xu L, Jiang W, Jia H, Zheng L, Xing J, Liu A, et al. Discovery of Multitarget-Directed Ligands Against Influenza A Virus From Compound Yizhihao Through a Predictive System for Compound-Protein Interactions. Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology. 2020; 10: 16.
  138. Hour MJ, Huang SH, Chang CY, Lin YK, Wang CY, Chang YS, et al. Baicalein, Ethyl Acetate, and Chloroform Extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis Inhibit the Neuraminidase Activity of Pandemic 2009 H1N1 and Seasonal Influenza A Viruses. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 2013; 2013: 750803.
  139. Haixia Su SY, Wenfeng Zhao, Minjun Li, Jia Liu, WeiJuan Shang, Hang Xie, Changqiang Ke, Meina Gao, Kunqian Yu, Hong Liu, Jingshan Shen, Wei Tang, Leike Zhang, Jianping Zuo, Hualiang Jiang, Fang Bai, Yan Wu, Yang Ye, Yechun Xu. Discovery of baicalin and baicalein as novel, natural product inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease in vitro. PPR: PPR151332 (Preprint). 2020.
  140. Stoger E, Sack M, Fischer R, Christou P. Plantibodies: applications, advantages and bottlenecks. Current opinion in biotechnology. 2002; 13(2): 161-6.
  141. Raja P, Tejaswi, C., Vidya, S., &Satyanarayana, D. Plantibodies. Indian journal of dental advancements,2014.
  142. Fischer R, Buyel JF. Molecular farming - The slope of enlightenment. Biotechnology advances. 2020; 40: 107519.
  143. Salazar-Gonzalez JA, Banuelos-Hernandez B, Rosales-Mendoza S. Current status of viral expression systems in plants and perspectives for oral vaccines development. Plant molecular biology. 2015; 87(3): 203-17.
  144. Pogrebnyak N, Golovkin M, Andrianov V, Spitsin S, Smirnov Y, Egolf R, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) S protein production in plants: development of recombinant vaccine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2005; 102(25): 9062-7.
  145. Li HY, Ramalingam S, Chye ML. Accumulation of recombinant SARS-CoV spike protein in plant cytosol and chloroplasts indicate potential for development of plant-derived oral vaccines. Experimental biology and medicine. 2006; 231(8): 1346-52.
  146. Zheng N, Xia R, Yang C, Yin B, Li Y, Duan C, et al. Boosted expression of the SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein in tobacco and its immunogenicity in mice. Vaccine. 2009; 27(36): 5001-7.
  147. Demurtas OC, Massa S, Illiano E, De Martinis D, Chan PK, Di Bonito P, et al. Antigen Production in Plant to Tackle Infectious Diseases Flare Up: The Case of SARS. Frontiers in plant science. 2016; 7: 54.
  148. Daniell H, Chan HT, Pasoreck EK. Vaccination via Chloroplast Genetics: Affordable Protein Drugs for the Prevention and Treatment of Inherited or Infectious Human Diseases. Annual review of genetics. 2016; 50: 595-618.

How to Cite

Bandyopadhyay, S., Pal, K., Haldar, S., & Paul, J. (2021). Exploring the role of phytochemicals as biopharmaceuticals targeting Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) virus: an Overview. Discovery Phytomedicine - Journal of Natural Products Research and Ethnopharmacology, 8(1).