Hepatoprotective Molecules and Extracts Profile from Calotropis procera R. Br.

Krishn Kumar Agrawal, Yogesh Murti

Krishn Kumar Agrawal
Faculty of Pharmacy Raja Balwant Singh Engineering Technical Campus Bichpuri Agra

Yogesh Murti
Institute of Pharmaceutical Research GLA University Mathura. Email:
Online First: April 15, 2021 | Cite this Article
Agrawal, K., Murti, Y. 2021. Hepatoprotective Molecules and Extracts Profile from Calotropis procera R. Br.. Discovery Phytomedicine 8(2). DOI:10.15562/phytomedicine.2021.164

Plants have a great value as the source of medicine. They are most utilized in ayurveda medicine of system for the treatment of various ailments without and/or less adverse effect.Calotropisprocera is shrubby medicinal plant that evenly grows in the various parts of India as well as in other countries. Leaves, flower, stem, bark, root and latex of Calotropisprocerais used traditionally as bitter, laxative, anthelmintic, appetizer, stomachic, anti-sialagogue and strengthening. Scientist explored the various parts of Calotropisprocera for different pharmacological activities like anthelmintic, antidiarrhoeal, hepatoprotective,schizonticidal, wound healing and jaundice. The plant is explored up to the chemical level and various chemicals are isolated from the different parts of the plants such as calotropagenin, lupeol, α-amyrin, β-sitosterol, quercetin and rutin etc. This review was attempted to explore the hepatoprotective potential of extracts and chemical moiety obtained from the different parts of Calotropisprocera


Mukherjee, PK, Quality control of herbal drugs; an approach to evaluation of botanicals, business horizons: New Delhi, 2012.

Kirtikar KR, Basu BD, Indian Medicinal Plants,2006.

Murti Y, Yogi B, Pathak D, Pharmacognostic Standardization of leaves of Calotropisprocera (Ait) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae). Int. J.Ayu. Res., 2010, 1 (1), 14-17.

Murti Y, Sharma S, Mishra P, In vitro anthelminthic activity of Calotropis procera(Ait.) R. Br. Leaves.Asian J. Pharm.Clin. Res., 2015, 8(6), 188-190.

Iqbal Z, Lateef M, Jabbar A, Muhammad G, Khan MN, Anthelmintic activity of Calotropisprocera (Ait.) Ait. F. flowers in Sheep. J. Ethnopharmacol, 2005, 102(2), 256-261.

Kumar S, Dewan S, Sangraula H, Kumar VL, Anti-diarrhoeal activity of the latex of Calotropis procera. J Ethnopharmacol, 2001, 76(1), 115-118.

Kamath JV, Rana AC, Preliminary study on antifertility activity of Calotropisprocera roots in female rats. Fitoterapia, 2002, 73(2), 111-115.

Patil RA, Makwana AB, Anti-hyperbilirubinemic and wound healing activity of aqueous extract of Calotropis procera leaves in Wistar rats. Indian J Pharmacol, 2015,47(4), 398–402.

Nenaah G, Antimicrobial activity of Calotropis procera Ait. (Asclepiadaceae) and isolation of four flavonoid glycosides as the active constituents.World J.Microbiol.Biotechnol., 2013, 29(7),1255–1262.

Soares PM, Lima SR, Samara GM, Andrade MM, Patrocínio MCA, de Freitas CDT, et al.,Antinociceptive activity of Calotropis procera latex in mice. J.Ethnopharmacol., 2005, 99(1), 125-129.

Roy S, Sehgal R, Padhy BM, Kumar VL, Antioxidant and protective effect of latex of Calotropisprocera against alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. J.Ethnopharmacol.,2005, 102(3), 470-473.

Ramachandra, V.H.;Shenoy, S.;Madhyastha, M.; Desai, R.;Ghosh, S. Evaluation of effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Calotropis procerain pentylenetetrazole induced seizures in rats. Int. J. Basic Clin.Pharmacol., 2016,5,643-646.

Sharma P, Sharma JD, In-vitro schizonticidal screening of Calotropis procera. Fitoterapia, 2000, 71(1), 77-79.

Murti Y, Sharma S, Mishra P, Analgesic potential of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. Leaves.J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2015, 7(7),1245-1249.

Murti Y, Sharma S, Mishra P, Diuretic activity of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. leaves in normal rats. Int. J. Pharm. Chem. Biol. Sci., 2015, 5(4), 829-833.

Murti Y, Sharma S, Mishra P, In-vitro cytotoxicity of chromatographic elutes of Calotropisprocera (Ait.) R Br. leaves against human hepatoma cell line (HEPG2). Indian Drugs, 2016,53(5),48-52.

Garabadu D, Srivastava N, Murti Y, Calotropis procera attenuates chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression in experimental animals. Metab. Brain Dis., 2019, 34, 1635-1647.

Evans WC, Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. Saunders an Imprint of Elsevier:2005.

Alikhan I, Khanum A, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of India.Ukaaz Publication:2005.

Sass JR, Elements of Botenical Microtechnique. McGraw Hill Book Co: New York,1940.

Fahn A, Plant Anatomy. Pergamous Press: England,1974.

Lala PK, Lab Manuals of Pharmacognosy.CSI Publishers and Distributors: Calcutta, 1993.

Pathania S, Bansal P, Gupta P, Rawal RK, Genus Calotropis: A Hub of Medicinally Active Phytoconstituents. Curr. Trad.Med.,2020, 6, 312-331.

Agrawal AA, Petschenka G, Bingham RA, Weber MG, Rasmann S, Toxic cardenolides: Chemical ecology and coevolution of specialized plant-herbivore interactions. New Phytol.,2012, 194(1), 28-45.

Sweidan NI, Abu Zarga MH, Two novel cardenolides from Calotropis procera. J. Asian Nat. Prod. Res.,2015,17(9), 900-907.

Wang, S.C.; Lu, M.C.; Chen, al.,Cytotoxicity of calotropin is through caspase activation and downregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins in K562 cells. Cell Biol. Int.,2009,33(12), 1230-1236.

Park, H.Y.;Toume, K.; Arai, M.A.; Sadhu, S.K.; Ahmed, F.;Ishibashi, M. Calotropin: A cardenolide from calotropisgiganteathat inhibits WNT signaling by increasing casein kinase 1α in colon cancer cells. ChemBio-Chem.,2014,15(6), 872-878.

Ibrahim, S.R.; Mohamed, G.A.;Shaala, al.,Proceraside A, a new cardiac glycoside from the root barks of Calotropisprocerawith in vitro anticancer effects. Nat. Prod. Res.,2014,28(17), 1322-1327.

Gupta, R.S.; Sharma, N.; Dixit, V.P. Calotropin - A novel compound for fertility control. Anc. Sci. Life,1990, 9(4), 224-230.

Van Khang, P.; Zhang, Z.G.;Meng, al.,Cardenolides from the bark of Calotropisgigantea. Nat. Prod. Res.,2014,28(15), 1191-1196.

Gurung, A.B.; Ali, M.A.;Bhattacharjee, al.,Molecular docking of the anticancer bioactive compound proceraside with macromolecules involved in the cell cycle and DNA replication. Genet. Mol. Res.,2016,15(2), 1-7.

Kushwaha, V.B.; Singh, A. Effect of uscharin on the reproduction of the snail Lymnaeaacuminata. World J. Zool.2010, 5, 15-9.

Jacinto, S.D.; Chun, E.A.;Montuno, A.S.;Shen, C.C.;Espineli, D.L.;Ragasa, C.Y. Cytotoxic cardenolide and sterols from Calotropisgigantea. Nat. Prod.Commun.,2011,6(6), 803-806.

Parhira, S.; Zhu, G.Y.; Jiang, R.W.; Liu, L.;Bai, L.P.; Jiang, Z.H. 2′-Epi-uscharin from the latex of Calotropis gigantean with HIF-1 inhibitory activity. Sci. Rep.,2014,4, 4748.

Yoneyama, T.; Arai, M.A.;Akamine, al.,Notch inhibitors from Calotropisgiganteathat induce neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells. J. Nat. Prod.,2017,80(9), 2453-2461.

You, H.; Lei, M.; Song, al.,Cytotoxic cardenolides from the root bark of Calotropisgigantea. Steroids,2013; 78(10), 1029-1034.

Mohamed, N.H.; Liu, M.; Abdel-Mageed, al.,Cytotoxic cardenolides from the latex of Calotropisprocera. Bioorg. Med. Chem.Lett.,2015,25(20), 4615-4620.

Seeka, C.;Sutthivaiyakit, S. Cytotoxic cardenolides from the leaves of Calotropisgigantea. Chem. Pharm. Bull.,2010,58(5), 725-728.

Hemalatha, R.;Padmini, E. In vivo and in silicostudies with the latex of the milk weed-Calotropisprocera(Ait). R Br. Drug Invent. Today,2010,2, 207-211.

Rohit, M.; Ashok, T.;Vijaykumar, al. Molecular docking study of Cassia tora, Brassica campestrisand Calotropisproceraas acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Indian J. Pharm. Educ. Res., 2016, 50, 116-122.

Al-Taweel, A.M.;Perveen, S.;Fawzy, al.,Evaluation of antiulcer and cytotoxic potential of the leaf, flower, and fruit extracts of Calotropisproceraand isolation of a new lignan glycoside. Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med.,2017, 20178086791.

Ibrahim, S.R.; Mohamed, G.A.;Shaala, L.A.;Banuls, L.M.; Kiss, R.; Youssef, D.T.Calotroposides H-N, new cytotoxic oxypregnaneoligoglycosides from the root bark of Calotropisprocera. Steroids,2015,96, 63-72.

Mahar, R.; Dixit, S.; Joshi, al.,Bioactivity guided isolation of oxypregnane-oligoglycosides (calotroposides) from the root bark of Calotropisgiganteaas potent anticancer agents. RSC Advances,2016,6, 104215-26.

Ibrahim, S.R.; Mohamed, G.A.;Shaala, al.,Calotroposide S, new oxypregnaneoligoglycoside from Calotropisproceraroot bark. Rec. Nat. Prod.,2016,10, 761.

Sun, M.; Pan, D.; Chen, Y.; Li, Y.;Gao, K.; Hu, B. Coroglaucigenin enhances the radiosensitivity of human lung cancer cells through Nrf2/ROS pathway. Oncotarget.,2017, 8(20), 32807-20.

Sun, Y.; Huang, Y.H.; Huang, al.,3′-epi-12β- hydroxyfroside, a new cardenolide, induces cytoprotective autophagy via blocking the Hsp90/Akt/mTOR axis in lung cancer cells. Theranostics,2018,8(7), 2044-2060.

Saratha, V.;Pillai, S.I.; Subramanian, S. Isolation and characterization of lupeol, a triterpenoid from Calotropisgigantealatex. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res.,2011, 10, 54-57.

Rupal, C.;Vadalia, K.;Gokani, al.,HPTLC method for the determination of lupeol from Calotropisproceraroot bark and Nyctanthesarbortristisleaves. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci.,2013,5: 547-550.

Saratha, V.; Subramanian, S.P.Lupeol, a triterpenoid isolated from Calotropisgigantealatex ameliorates the primary and secondary complications of FCA induced adjuvant disease in experimental rats. Inflammopharmacol.,2012, 20(1), 27-37.

Lee, C.; Lee, J.W.;Seo, J.Y.; Hwang, S.W.;Im, J.P.; Kim, J.S. Lupeol inhibits LPS-induced NF-kappa B signaling in intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, and attenuates acute and chronic murine colitis. Life Sci.,2016,146, 100-108.

Wagh, S.;Gujar, J.;Gaikar, V. Experimental and modeling studies on extraction of amyrins from latex of mandar (Calotropisgigantea). Indian J. Chem. Technol.,2012,19, 427-33.

Kumar, P.S.;Chezhian, A.; Raja, al.,Computational selections of terpenes present in the plant Calotropisgiganteaas mosquito larvicide’s by blocking the sterol carrying protein, AeSCP-2. Bangladesh J.Pharmacol.,2012, 7, 1-5.

Dhivya, R. In silicomolecular docking and molecular dynamics applications in the designing of a new mosquito repellent from the plant Calotropis gigantean targeting the odorant binding protein of Culexquinquefasciatus. Int. J. Pharm.Phytopharm. Res.,2013, 3.

Ibrahim, S.R.; Mohamed, G.A.;Shaala, al.,New ursane-type triterpenes from the root bark of Calotropisprocera. Phytochem.Lett.,2012, 5, 490-495.

Mittal, A.; Ali, M. Acyclic diterpenic constituents from the roots of Calotropisprocera(Ait). R Br. J. Saudi Chem. Soc.,2015, 19, 59-63.

Patil, S.G.;Patil, M.P.;Maheshwari, al., In vitro lipase inhibitory effect and kinetic properties of diterpenoid fraction from Calotropisprocera(Aiton). Biocatal. Agric.Biotechnol.,2015,4, 579-585.

Omer, I.; Abdurrahman, I.;Cai-Xia, Y. New triterpenoid from the roots of Calotropisgigantea(L) Dryand (Asclepiadaceae). Am. J. Org. Chem.,2017, 7, 13-8.

Parhira, S.; Yang, Z.F.; Zhu, G.Y.;et al.,In vitro anti-influenza virus activities of a new lignan glycoside from the latex of Calotropisgigantea. PLoS One,2014,9(8), e104544.

Nguyen, K.D.H.; Dang, P.H.; Nguyen, H.X.; Nguyen, M.T.T.;Awale, S.; Nguyen, N.T. Phytochemical and cytotoxic studies on the leaves of Calotropisgigantea. Bioorg. Med. Chem.Lett.,2017,27(13), 2902-2906.

Abdel-Mageed, W.M.; Mohamed, N.H.; Liu, al.,Lipoxygenase inhibitors from the latex of CalotropisProcera. Arch. Pharm. Res.,2016,39, 1-9.

Jacinto, S.D.; Chun, E.A.;Montuno, A.S.;Shen, C.C.;Espineli, D.L.;Ragasa, C.Y. Cytotoxic cardenolide and sterols from Calotropisgigantea. Nat. Prod.Commun.,2011,6(6), 803-806.

Parihar, G.;Balekar, N. Isolation and characterization of stigmast-5-en-3-ol ([beta]-sitosterol) from Calotropisproceralatex ethyl acetate fraction for immunomodulatory activity. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res.,2017,8, 1375.

Chundattu, S.J.;Agrawal, V.K.; Ganesh, N. Phytochemical investigation of Calotropisprocera. Arab. J. Chem., 2016, 9, S230-4.

Sureshkumar, P.;Senthilraja, P.;Kalavathy, S. In-silicodocking analysis of Calotropisgigantea(L). R Br derived compound against anti-cervical cancer activity. World Res. J.Comput. Aided Drug Des.,2012, 1, 9-12.

Parhira, S.; Zhu, G.Y.; Li, T.; Liu, L.;Bai, L.P.; Jiang, Z.H. Inhibition of IKK-β by epidioxysterols from the flowers of Calotropisgigantea(Niujiaogua). Chin. Med., 2016, 11, 9.

Salunke, B.;Kotkar, H.;Mendki, al.,Efficacy of flavonoids in controlling Callosobruchuschinensis(L.)(Coleoptera: Bruchidae), a post-harvest pest of grain legumes. Crop Prot.,2005,24, 888-893.

Shaker, K.H.;Morsy, N.;Zinecker, al.,Secondary metabolites from Calotropisprocera(Aiton). Phytochem. Lett.,2010, 3, 212-216.

Prabha, M.R.;Vasantha, K. Antioxidant, cytotoxicity and polyphenolic content of Calotropisprocera(Ait.) R Br. Flowers. J. Appl. Pharm. Sci., 2011,1, 136.

Nenaah, G.E. Potential of using flavonoids, latex and extracts from Calotropisprocera(Ait.) as grain protectants against two coleopteran pests of stored rice. Ind. Crops Prod. 2013,45, 327-334.

Nenaah, G. Antimicrobial activity of CalotropisproceraAit (Asclepiadaceae) and isolation of four flavonoid glycosides as the active constituents. World J.Microbiol.Biotechnol.,2013,29(7), 1255-1262.

Awaad, A.A.;Alkanhal, H.F.; El-Meligy, al.,Antiulcerative colitis activity of CalotropisproceraLinn. Saudi Pharm. J.,2018,26(1), 75-78.

Mittal, A., Ali, M. Aliphatic and phenolic glycosides from the roots of Calotropisprocera(Ait) R. Br. Int. J. Pharm. Tech. Res.,2012,4, 213-217.

Manivannan, R.;Shopna, R.; Anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity of new 4-methoxy-3- (methoxymethyl) phenol and (e)-n′-(5-bromo-2- methoxybenzylidene)-4-methoxy benzohydrazide isolated from Calotropis gigantean white. Nat. Prod. Sci.,2017,23, 69-74.

Rajamohan, S,;Kalaivanan, P.;Sivangnanam, al.,Antioxidant, antimicrobial activities and GC-MS analysis of Calotropis gigantean white flowers. J.Phytopharmacol.,2014,3, 405-409.

Cavalcante, G.S.; de Morais, S.M.; Andre, al.,Chemical composition and in vitro activity of Calotropisprocera(Ait) latex on Haemonchuscontortus. Vet.Parasitol.,2016,226, 22-25.

Khang, N.H.D.;Phu, D.H.;Nhan, N.T. Chemical constituents from the chloroform extract of the root of Calotropisgigantea(Linn), Asclepidaceae. J. Anal. Sci.,2015,20, 368-372.

Wang, Z.N.; Wang, M.Y.; Mei, W.L.; Han, Z.; Dai, H.F. A new cytotoxic pregnanone from Calotropisgigantea. Molecules,2008,13(12), 3033-3039.

Setty, S.R.;Quereshi, A.A.;Swamy, A.H.M.V.;Patil, T.;Prakash, T.;Prabhu, al., Hepatoprotective activity of Calotropisprocera flowers against paracetamol-induced hepatic injury in rats.Fitoterapia,2007, 78, 451–454.

Kamil, N.;Imran-ul-Haque, H.S. Hepatoprotective Effect of Calotropisprocerain Isoniazid and Rifampicin Induced Hepatotoxicity.Phcog. J., 2014, 6(5), 9-14.

Chavada, R.;Vadalia, K.R.;Gokani, R. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of root bark of Calotropisprocera R.Br. (Asclepediaceae). Int. J. Pharmacol.,2010, 6 (6), 937-943.

Dahiru, D.;Amos, A.;Sambo, S.H.; Effect of Ethanol Extract of CalotropisproceraRoot Bark on Carbon tetrachloride-Induced hepatonephrotoxicity in Female Rats.Jordan J. Biol. Sci.,2013, 6(3),227 – 230.

Agbaje, E.O.;Ogunleye, O.;Hepatoprotective Activity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Calotropisproceraa. (Asclepladaceae) in Paracetamol-Induced Liver Injury.J. Pharm. Sci. Res.,2016, 8(9), 988-994.

Alrheam, A.I.A.A. Biochemical effects of Calotropisproceraon hepatotoxicity. Biomed. Res.Ther.,2015, 2(12), 446-453.

Olaleye, M.T.;Akindahunsi, A.A.;Ewemade, E.J.; Hepatoprotective Activity Of Leaf- Extract of CalotropisProcera Against Acetaminophen- and Hepatitis Virus- Induced Liver Damage In Rats.Niger. J. Nat. Prod. Med.,2008, 12.

Sharma, A.;Rathore, G.S.;Sharma, M.S.;Choudhary, V.;Kumar,B.;Bhandari, A.Pharmacological Evaluation of Stem of CalotropisProcerafor Hepatoprotective Activity. Int. J. Res. Pharmacy Chem., 2011, 1(2), 143-147.

Al-Taweel, A.M.;Perveen, S.;Fawzy, G.A.;Rehman, A.U.; Khan, A.;Mehmood, al., Evaluation of Antiulcer and Cytotoxic Potential of the Leaf, Flower, and Fruit Extracts of Calotropisproceraand Isolation of a New Lignan Glycoside.Evid. Based Complement.Alternat. Med.,2017.

Singh, D.;Arya, P.V.; Sharma, A.;Dobhal, M.P.; Gupta, R.S.Modulatory potential of α-amyrin against hepatic oxidative stress through antioxidant status in Wistar albino rats. J.Ethnopharmacol.,2015, 161, 186-93.

Gupta,R.; Sharma, A.K.; Sharma, M.C.; Dobhal, M.P.; Gupta, R.S.Evaluation of antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of lupeol in experimental hyperglycaemia. Nat. Prod. Res., 2012, 26(12), 1125-1129.

Sudhahar, V.;Veena, C.K.;Varalakshmi, P.;Antiurolithic Effect of Lupeol and LupeolLinoleate in Experimental Hyperoxaluria.J. Nat. Prod., 2008, 71(9), 1509-1512.

Prasad, S.;Kalra, N.;Shukla, Y. Hepatoprotective effects of lupeol and mango pulp extract of carcinogen induced alteration in Swiss albino mice. Mol.Nutr. Food Res.,2007,51(3), 352-359.

Srivastava, G.; Singh, M.P.; Mishra, A. Ursolic acid: A natural preventive aesculapian for environmental hepatic ailments. Environ. Dis.,2017,2,87-94.

Guti´errez-Rebolledo, G.A.;Siordia-Reyes, A.G.;Meckes-Fischer, M.;Jim´enez-Arellanes, A. Hepatoprotective properties of oleanolic and ursolic acids in anti-tubercular drug-induced liver Damage. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Med.,2016,9(7), 644–651.

Kishen, A.;Priya, V.V.;Gayathri, R.In vitro hepatoprotective activity of ursolic acid against CCL4-induced damage in hepatocytes.Drug Invent. Today, 2019, 12(6), 1284-1286.

Ali, S.A.; Ibrahim, N.A.; Mohammed, M.M.D.; El-Hawary, S.;Refaat, E.A. The potential chemo preventive effect of ursolic acid isolated from Paulownia tomentosa, against N-diethylnitrosamine: initiated and promoted hepatocarcinogenesis.Heliyon,2019,5, e01769.

Slobodnick, A.;Shah, B.;Pillinger, M.H.;Krasnokutsky, S.;Colchicine: Old and New.Am. J. Med.,2015,128(5), 461–470.

Martinez, M.;Mourelle, M.;Muriel, P. Protective Effect of Colchicine on Acute Liver Damage Induced by CCI4 Role of Cytochrome P-450.J. Appl.Toxicol., 1995, 15(1), 49-52.

Xiang, L.W.;Melton, L.D.; Leung, I.K.H. Interactions of β-LactoglobulinWith Small Molecules.Encyclo. Food Chem.,2019, 560-565.

Chalouati,H.;Sâad,M.M.B.;Payrastre, L.Hepatoprotective effects of vitamin E against hexachlorobenzene-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats: histological, biochimical and antioxidant status changes.Toxicol. Mech. Methods, 2019, 29(1),18-25.

Gupta, K.;Taj, T.;Thansiya, B.;Kamath, J.V.Pre-clinical evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of phytol in wistar albino rats. Int. J.Compr. Adv.Pharmacol.,2019, 4(1), 17-20.

Mathew, C.Y.Pinoresinol: A potential Biological warrior in edible foods.IOSR J. Environ. Sci.Toxicol. Food Technol., 1(1), 44-47.

Kim, H.Y.; Kim, J.K.; Choi, J.H.; Jung, J.Y.; Oh, W.Y.; Kim, al.,Hepatoprotective Effect of Pinoresinol on Carbon Tetrachloride–Induced Hepatic Damage in Mice.J.Pharmacol. Sci., 2010, 112, 105−112.

Atmaca,M.;Bilgin, H.M.;Obay, B.D.;Diken,H.;Kelle,M.;Kale, E. The hepatoprotective effect of coumarin and coumarinderivates on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury by antioxidative activities in rats. J. Physiol.Biochem., 2011, 67,569–576.

No Supplementary Material available for this article.
Article Views      : 0
PDF Downloads : 0