Ethanolic extract of Chrysophyllum albidum stem bark prevents alloxan-induced diabetes

Elias Adikwu

Elias Adikwu
. Email: adikwuelias@gmail.com
Online First: April 15, 2019 | Cite this Article
Adikwu, E. 2019. Ethanolic extract of Chrysophyllum albidum stem bark prevents alloxan-induced diabetes. Discovery Phytomedicine 6(2). DOI:10.15562/phytomedicine.2019.81

Background: Chrysophyllum albidum (C. albidum) is used in folklore for the treatment of diabetes. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the ethanolic extract of Chrysophyllum albidum stem bark on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were randomly divided into groups and treated with ethanolic extract of C. albidum stem bark for 7-28 days. Metformin (150mg/kg) was used as the standard control. At the end of the treatment, blood sample was collected for glucose test, while serum was extracted for triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), and high density lipoprotein (LDLC) evaluation. The pancreas was excised and evaluated for superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and histological damage. Results: Blood glucose, serum TG, TC, LDL-C levels were significantly increased whereas HDL-C levels were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in diabetic rats. Also, pancreatic levels of CAT, SOD, GSH were significantly increased (p<0.05) whereas MDA levels were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in diabetic rats. However, the levels of these parameters were restored significantly (p<0.05) in diabetic rats treated with 100, 200 and 400mg/kg of ethanolic extract of C. albidum stem bark. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of C. albidum stem bark has potentials as remedy for diabetes. The findings in the presents study support the use of C. albidum in folklore for the treatment of diabetes. 



Mohini P, Subhash P, Manohar P, Abhijit T, Vijay N. Effect of the spesonevanadium complex in alloxan induced diabetic rats. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2012;6:692e697.

Ene AC, Nwankwo EA, Samdi LM. Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats and the effects of black caraway (Carum carvi l.) oil on their body weight. Research Journal of Medical Sciences. 2007;2:48e52.

Susan JL, Helseth LD. Reducing the complications of type II diabetes: a patient-centered approach. Am Fam Physician 1997; 56:471-80

Kronenberg L, Melmed. Williams textbook of endocrinology. 10th Edition. Elsevier India Publisher. 2003:1428-31.

Harnett EM, Stratton RD, Browne RW, Rosner BA, Lanharm RJ, Armstrong D. Serum markers of oxidative stress and severity of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care 2000; 23:234-240.

Annapurna A, Kanaka, M D, Murali K K. Antidiabetic activity of a polyherbal preparation (tincture of punchparna) in normal and diabetic Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 39 (2001), 500–502

Farombi EO. African indigenous plants with chemotherapeutic potentials and biotechnological approach to the production of bioactive prophylactic agents African. Journal of Biotechnology. 2003; 2(12):662-671.

Adisa, S.A., 2000. Vitamin C, protein and mineral contents of African apple (Chrysophyllum Albidum) In: Proceedings of the l8th Annual Conference of NIST (Eds). Garba SA. Ijagbone IF, Iyagba AO. lyamu AO, Kilani AS, Ufaruna N: pp: 141-146.

Olorunnisola DS, Amao IS, Ehigie DU and Ajayi AT. Anti-hyperglycemic and Hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of Chrysophyllum albidum seed cotyledon in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Research Journal of Applied Science. 2008; 3:123-127

Idowu TO, Iwalewa EO, Aderogba MA, Akinrelu BA. and Ogundami AO (2006). Biochemical and behavioural effects of eleagnine from Chrysophyllum albidum. Journal of Biological Sciences 6(6): 1029-1034

Amusa, N., Ashaye O and Oladapo M. Biodeterioration of the African star apple (Chrysophyllum Albidum) in storage and the effect on its food value. African Journal of. Biotechnology, 2003; 2: 56-59.

Okoli B and Okere OS. Antimicrobial activity of the phytochemical constituent of ChrysophyllumalbidumG.Don plant.Journal of Research in National Development 2010; .8 (1): 35-42

Harborne IB. Phytochemical Methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis (3rd Edition). 1998; pp302

Lorke D. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing Arch. Toxicology, 1998; 53. 273.

Akhtar MS, Nadeem M and Rashid B (2011). Hypoglycemic activity of different fractions of Chrysophyllum albidum root bark in normal and alloxan diabetic rats. Canada Journal of Applied Science.1(2):16-28

Olajide OA, Awe S and Makinde JM. Purgative effect of the methanol extract of Moringa lucida. Fitoterapia. 2004; 70: 199-204

Friedewald, W.T Levy RI and Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin. Chem., 1972; 18: 499-502.

Gornall AG, Bardawill CJ, David MM. Determination of serum proteins by means of the biureto reaction. Journal of Bioliogical Chemistry. 1949;177:751-66.

Buege JA, Aust SD. Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods in Enzymology. 1978;52:302-10.

Sedlak J, Lindsay RH. Estimation of total, protein-bound, and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups in tissue with Ellman’seeagent. Anals of Biochemistry 1968;25:192-205.

Sun M, Zigma S. An Improved spectrophotometer assay of superoxide dismutase based on epinephrine antioxidation. Anals of Biochemistry. 1978;90:81-9.

Aebi H. Catalase in vitro. Methods in Enzymology. 1984;105:121- 6.

Rotruck JT, Pope AL, Ganther HE, Swanson AB, Hafeman DG, Hoekstra WG. Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science. 1973;179:588-90.

Njolstad PR, Sagen JV, Bjorkhaug L, Odili S, Shehadeh N, Bakry D, Sarici, S. U., Alpay, F., Molnes, J., Molven, A., Sovik, O. and Matschinsky, F. M. (2003). Permanent neonatal diabetes caused by glucokinase deficiency: inborn error of the glucose-insulin signaling pathway. Diabetes. 52(11):2854-60.

World Health Organization. Report of a WHO Study Group on Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Technical Report Series 1985; 727: 7-113

Newman DJ, Cragg GM. and Snader KM (2003). “Natural products as sources of new drugs”.Journal of Natural Products. 66: 1022-1033

Abdel-Gayoum AG. The effect of glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetes-related dyslipidemia. Saudi Medical Journal 2004;25(2):207-11.

Lipinski, B., 2001. Pathophysiology of oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. Journal of Diabetes its Complications 15 (4), 203–210.

Dobrian AD, Davies MJ, Schriver SD, Lauterio TJ, Prewitt RL. Oxidative stress in a rat model of obesity-induced hypertension. Hypertension. 2001;37:554–560

Elsner M, Tiedge M, Guldbakke B, Munday R, Lenzen S. Importance of the GLUT2 glucose transporter for pancreatic beta cell toxicity of alloxan. Diabetologia 2002;45:1542–9

Janić M, Volčanšek S, Lunder M, Janež A, Metformin: from mechanisms of action to advanced clinical use Zdrav Vestn. 2017; 86: 138–57

Marriff HI, Al, BH and Hassan KM.Some pharmacological studies on Chrysophyllum africanum in rabbits and mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005; 49:51-55

Grover JK, Yadav S, Sats V. Medicinal plants of India anti-diabetic potential. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2002; 81: 81-100

Sarwar N, Gao P, Seshasai SR, Gobin R, Kaptoge S and Sattar N (2010). “Diabetes Mellitus Fasting Blood Glucose Concentration And Risk Of Vascular Disease: A Collective meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies”.The Lancet.375(9733):2215- 2222.

No Supplementary Material available for this article.
Article Views      : 0
PDF Downloads : 0

Related Articles

Search Authors in

  • Elias Adikwu

  • Elias Adikwu

  • Elias Adikwu