Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Antidiarrheal activity of methanol extract of Piper sylvaticum (roxb.) stem in mice and in silico molecular docking of its isolated compounds


Background: Piper sylvaticum (Roxb.), is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a number of disease like in asthma, diarrhea, chronic cough, cold, piles, tuberculosis, and wounds. In this study, we investigated the antidiarrheal activity of methanol extract of P. sylvaticum stem (Met.PSS) in animal models. Later, molecular docking study was performed to better understand its molecular mechanism and to determine the potent phytocompounds of this plant for the antidiarrheal property.

Methods: The stems were extracted with methanol and subjected to in vivo antidiarrheal study using the castor oil-induced diarrhea and castor oil induced enteropooling tests in animal models. And then, in silico molecular docking study was performed using Schrödinger suite Maestro v10.1.

Results: Met.PSS exhibited a dose-dependent and statistically significant antidiarrheal activity in both castor oil-induced diarrhea and enteropooling tests at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Additionally, our molecular docking analysis exhibited that four compounds viz. piperine, piperlonguminine, sylvamide, and sylvatine have the best binding affinity against the target enzyme (M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor) in comparison to reference drug Loperamide.

Conclusions: The present study suggests that Met.PSS possess significant antidiarrheal activity which could be related to the presence of various secondary plant metabolites or phytochemicals. Additionally, the phytocompounds, i.e., piperine, piperlonguminine, sylvamide, and sylvatine were found to be most effective in molecular docking study.


  1. Cragg GM, Newman DJ, Snader KM. Natural products in drug discovery and development. J Nat Prod. 1997;60(1):52–60.
  2. Goyal BR, Goyal RK, Mehta AA. Phyto-pharmacology of Achyranthes aspera: a review. Pharmacogn Rev. 2007;1(1):143.
  3. Minhajur RM, Alam MM, Daula AFMSU, Shahriar M, Moghal MMR, Siddiqui R. The antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of leaf extracts of Stephania japonica (akanadi). Bangladesh J Microbiol. 2011;28(2):52–6.
  4. Borris RP. Natural products research: perspectives from a major pharmaceutical company. J Ethnopharmacol. 1996;51(1–3):29–38.
  5. Quattrocchi U. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology (5 Volume Set). 2016;
  6. Knowledge of Herbs. 1st ed. Sai ePublications; 2013. 332 p.
  7. Parmar VS, Jain SC, Bisht KS, Jain R, Taneja P, Jha A, et al. Phytochemistry of the genus Piper. Phytochemistry. 1997;46(4):597–673.
  8. Kumar K, Kumar D, Jindal DK, Yadav M, Sharma N, Gupta R. Comparative antioxidant activity of roots and fruits of Piper sylvaticum Roxb. J Compr Pharm. 2016;3.
  9. Paul A, Adnan M, Majumder M, Kar N, Meem M, Rahman MS, et al. Anthelmintic activity of Piper sylvaticum Roxb.(family: Piperaceae): In vitro and in silico studies. Clin Phytoscience. 2018;4(1):17.
  10. Awouters F, Niemegeers CJE, Lenaerts FM, Janssen PAJ. Delay of castor oil diarrhoea in rats: a new way to evaluate inhibitors of prostaglandin biosynthesis. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1978;30(1):41–5.
  11. Robert A, Nezamis JE, Lancaster C, Hanchar AJ, Klepper MS. Enteropooling assay: a test for diarrhea produced by prostaglandins. Prostaglandins. 1976;11(5):809–28.
  12. Adnan M, Chy NU, Mostafa Kamal ATM, Azad MOK, Paul A, Uddin SB, et al. Investigation of the Biological Activities and Characterization of Bioactive Constituents of Ophiorrhiza rugosa var. prostrata (D. Don) & Mondal Leaves through In Vivo, In Vitro, and In Silico Approaches. Molecules. 2019;24(7):1367.
  13. Friesner RA, Banks JL, Murphy RB, Halgren TA, Klicic JJ, Mainz DT, et al. Glide: a new approach for rapid, accurate docking and scoring. 1. Method and assessment of docking accuracy. J Med Chem. 2004;47(7):1739–49.
  14. Fakruddin M, Mannan KS Bin, Mazumdar RM, Afroz H. Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of Clausena heptaphylla. BMC Complement Altern Med [Internet]. 2012;12(1):1196. Available from:
  15. Gong X-P, Sun Y-Y, Chen W, Guo X, Guan J-K, Li D-Y, et al. Anti-diarrheal and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract of the aerial part of Rubia cordifolia. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17(1):20.
  16. Tanko Y, Alladey O, Ahmed MK, Mohammed A, Musa KY. The effect of methanol leaves extract of Ficus glumosa on gastrointestinal motility and on castor oil induced diarrhea in laboratory animals. J Nat Prod Plant Resour. 2012;2(3):360–7.
  17. Horton EW, Main IH, Thompson CJ, Wright PM. Effect of orally administered prostaglandin E1 on gastric secretion and gastrointestinal motility in man. Gut. 1968;9(6):655.
  18. Otshudi AL, Vercruysse A, Foriers A. Contribution to the ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies of traditionally used medicinal plants in the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea in Lomela area, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;71(3):411–23.
  19. Veiga VF, Zunino L, Calixto JB, Patitucci ML, Pinto AC. Phytochemical and antioedematogenic studies of commercial copaiba oils available in Brazil. Phyther Res. 2001;15(6):476–80.
  20. Vimala R, Nagarajan S, Alam M, Susan T, Joy S. Antiinflammatory and antipyretic activity of Michelia champaca Linn.,(white variety), Ixora brachiata Roxb. and Rhynchosia cana (Willd.) DC flower extract. Indian J Exp Biol. 1997;35(12):1310–4.
  21. Carlo G Di, Mascolo N, Izzo AA, Capasso F. Effects of quercetin on the gastrointestinal tract in rats and mice. Phyther Res. 1994;8(1):42–5.
  22. Salako OA, Akindele AJ, Shitta OM, Elegunde OO, Adeyemi OO. Antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous leaf extract of Caladium bicolor (Araceae) and its possible mechanisms of action. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;176:225–31.
  23. Rao Α V, Gurfinkel DM. The bioactivity of saponins: triterpenoid and steroidal glycosides. Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2000;17(1–4):211–36.
  24. Bajad S, Bedi KL, Singla AK, Johri RK. Antidiarrhoeal activity of piperine in mice. Planta Med. 2001;67(03):284–7.
  25. Salehi B, Zakaria ZA, Gyawali R, Ibrahim SA, Rajkovic J, Shinwari ZK, et al. Piper Species: A Comprehensive Review on Their Phytochemistry, Biological Activities and Applications. Molecules. 2019;24(7):1364.

How to Cite

Chakrabarty, N., Haque, M. T., Ershad, M., kabir, M. A., Shams, M. R., Tahsin, F., Milonuzzaman, M., Al Haque, M. M., Hasan, M. Z., Al Mahabub, A., Rahman, M. M., & Patwary, M. R. U. (2019). Antidiarrheal activity of methanol extract of Piper sylvaticum (roxb.) stem in mice and in silico molecular docking of its isolated compounds. Discovery Phytomedicine - Journal of Natural Products Research and Ethnopharmacology, 6(3).